Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins are necessary for growth, health, and metabolism. Vitamins perform highly specific metabolic functions, especially in energy metabolism and are vital to all our biological functions including the synthesis of muscle tissue.

Fat Soluble Vitamins can be stored in the body and need not be consumed daily. While it is difficult to "overdose" on them from ordinary sources, consuming mega doses of fat soluble vitamins, especially A and D, can lead to a dangerous build-up in the body.

Abbreviations: IU = International Units | mg = milligrams | mcg = micrograms
Vitamin/Mineral Sources Indication

Vitamin A Retinol

Men: 3 000 IU Women: 2 700 IU

Liver, fortified Milk (Retinol form - see below for Carotene sources.) Essential for eyes, skin and the proper function of the immune system. Helps maintain hair, bones and teeth.

Beta Carotene

(Pro-Vitamin A)

Carrots, Squash, Broccoli, Green Leafy Vegetables Antioxidant. Converted to Vitamin A in the body. (See Vitamin A)

Vitamin D

Men: 100 IU Women: 100 IU

Egg Yolk, Milk, Exposure to sun enables body to make its own Vitamin D. Helps build and maintain teeth and bones. Enhances calcium absorption.

Vitamin E

Men: 9-10 mg Women: 6-7 mg

Corn or Cottonseed Oil, Butter, Brown Rice, Soybean Oil, Vegetable oils such as Corn, Cottonseed or Soybean, Nuts, Wheat Germ. Antioxidant. Helps form red blood cells, muscles and other tissues. Preserves fatty acids.

Vitamin K

None established.

Estimated at 0.03 mcg/kg

Green Vegetables, Liver, also made by intestinal bacteria. Needed for normal blood clotting.
Water Soluble Vitamins:

These are not stored in the body and should therefore be consumed daily.

Vitamin/Mineral Sources Indication

Thiamine Vitamin B1

Men: 0.8-1.3 mg Women: 0.8 mg

Sunflower Seeds, Pork, whole and enriched Grains, dried Beans. Necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and muscle coordination. Promotes proper nerve function.

Riboflavin Vitamin B2

Men: 1.3-1.6 mg Women: 1.1 mg

Liver, Milk, Spinach, enriched Noodles, Mushrooms. Needed for metabolism of all foods and the release of energy to cells. Essential to the functioning of Vitamin B6 and Niacin.

Niacin Vitamin B3

Men: 16-23 mg Women: 14-16 mg

Niacin is converted to niacinamide in the body.

Mushrooms, Bran, Tuna, Chicken, Beef, Peanuts, enriched Grains. Needed in many enzymes that convert food to energy. Helps maintain a healthy digestive tract and nervous system. In very large doses, lower cholesterol (large doses should only be taken under the advice of a physician).

Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B5

Men: 2.5 mg Women: 2.5 mg

Abundant in animal tissues, whole grain cereals and legumes. Converts food to molecular forms. Needed to manufacture adrenal hormones and chemicals that regulate nerve function.

Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine

Men: 1.8 mg Women: 1.5 mg

Animal protein foods, Spinach, Broccoli, Bananas. Needed for protein metabolism and absorption, carbohydrate metabolism. Helps form red blood cells. Promotes nerve and brain function.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin

Men: 2 mcg Women: 2 mcg

Found almost exclusively in animal products. Builds genetic material. Helps form red blood cells.


60 mcg

Cheese, Egg, Yolk, Cauliflower, Peanut Butter Needed for metabolism of glucose and formation of certain fatty acids. Essential for proper body chemistry.

Folic Acid

( Folacin ) Men: 180-220 mg Women: 160-190 mg

Green, leafy vegetables, Orange Juice, organ Meats, Sprouts. Essential for the manufacture of genetic material as well as protein metabolism and red blood cell formation.

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid

Men: 40 mg Women: 30 mg

Citrus Fruits, Strawberries, Broccoli, Green Peppers Antioxidant. Helps bind cells together and strengthens blood vessel walls. Helps maintain healthy gums. Aids in the absorption of iron.

These are found in organic products essential for body functions.

Vitamin/Mineral Sources Indication


Men: 800-1000 mg Women: 700-800 mg

Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, Sardines, Broccoli, Turnip Greens. Helps build strong bones and teeth. Promotes muscle and nerve function. Helps blood to clot. Helps activate enzymes needed to convert food to energy.


Men: 1000 mg Women: 850 mg (3-6 g)

Chicken Breast, Milk, Lentils, Egg Yolks, Nuts, Cheese With calcium builds bones and teeth. Needed for metabolism, body chemistry, nerve and muscle function.


Men: 230-250 mg Women: 200-210 mg

Spinach, Beef Greens, Broccoli, Tofu, Popcorn, Cashews,Wheat Bran Activates enzymes needed to release energy in body. Needed by cells for genetic material and bone growth.


Men: 40-80 mmol Women: 40-80 mmol (3-6 g)

Peanuts, Bananas, Orange Juice, Green Beans, Mushrooms, Oranges, Broccoli, Sunflower Seeds. Helps maintain regular fluid balance. Needed for nerve and muscle function.

Iron (Elemental)

Men: 8-10 mg Women: 8-13 mg

Liver, lean Meats, Kidney beans, enriched Bread, Raisins.Note: Oxalic acid in spinach hinders iron absorption. Essential for making haemoglobin, the red substance in blood that acrries oxygen to body cells.


Men: 12 mg Women: 9 mg

Oysters, Shrimp, Crab, Beef, Turkey, whole Grains, Peanuts, Beans. Necessary element in more than 100 enzymes that are essential to digestion and metabolism.


0.05-0.2 mg

Adequate amounts are found in Seafood, Kidney, Liver and other meats. Grains and other Seed contain varying amounts depending on the soil content. Antioxidant. Interacts with Vitamin E to prevent breakdown of fats and body chemicals.


2-3 mg

The richest sources of copper in the diet are Liver and other organ Meats, Seafood's, Nuts and Seeds. Component of several enzymes, including on needed to make skin, hair and other pigments. Stimulates iron absorption. Needed to make red blood cells, connective tissue and nerve fibres.


2-5 mg

Tea, whole Grains and Cereal products are the richest dietary sources. Adequate amounts are found in Fruits and Vegetables. Needed for normal tendon and bone structure. Component of some enzymes important in metabolism.


0.15-0.3 mg

The concentration in food varies depending on the environment in which the food was grown. Milk, Beans, Breads and Cereals contribute the highest amounts. Component of enzymes needed in metabolism. Helps regulate iron storage.